Łączna liczba wyświetleń

poniedziałek, 31 maja 2010


It was so long ago. Most of the memories I do not remember what heartily sorry, but I will try to give as much as possible.
In 1942-1943, the Red Army put an emphasis on restoration of losses from 1941. Production of T-34 increased rapidly, but its construction was introduced only to improve, which may have contributed to the acceleration of production. Soviet designers were aware of the need to improve some shortcomings of the structure.
However, such improvements would lead to increased time and cost of production. For this reason, could not be used.
In 1943, production of T-34 has increased to an average of 1,300 units per month. Kacapy had greater losses than the Germans because of the tactical level of preparation.

In response to the same number appearing on the field of battle tanks T-34 and increasing demand for greater firepower,
Germany began to produce a very large number of rapid-fire guns PaK 40 75 mm, both towed and self-propelled. The latter were built in 1943.
Since 1942 and in mid-1943 the Germans began massive production tanks
severe type of tiger
and average Pantera,
the appearance of which awakened the need to improve T-34 tank.
These revised editions have appeared worthy of notice in two forms:
more armored version of the 1943, which included a more capacious and durable container, and a modified tower
as well as the 1944 version of the new tower, the shape of the continuing work anti-armor/against air 85 mm ZIS.
The latter has significantly more firepower, compared to the previous works 76,2 mm F-34 and finally gave the T-34's offensive ability, which so badly needed Soviet army.

Mark II

State United Kingdom
Manufacturer Vickers Armstrong
Track traction
Type Cruiser tank
Crew 5
Prototype 1936
Introduced 1939 - 1940
Decommissioned in 1941
Made 205
Technical Data
A diesel engine AEC
Power 350 hp
Broadcast Engineering
Max length of 5.50 m
Width 2.60 m
Height 2.50 m
Combat weight 13 800 kg
Armor Thickness 7 - 30 mm
Maximum speed
On the road 25 km / h
In the field, 13 km / h
Ability to overcome obstacles
Range 160 km
Operational Data
An artillery cannon QFSA L/52 40 mm caliber (Mk II)
1 inch 94 mm howitzer (Mark II CS)
Shooting a machine gun Vickers inch 7.7 mm
Besa machine gun, a 7.92 mm caliber
Great Britain

Mark II is a continuation of the Mark I with minor amendments. Brytole saw Mark I, that is niedorobiony that it will be to fight. And the Mark II was still being produced, but these were used for training. Nearly all were constructed of unhardened steel, but among those, the military training ground in Wool, Dorset, a few that had armor made of hardened steel, was sent to the continent. Were used in the Battle of Arras in April 1917 due to delays in the production of the Mark I.

Mark II, produced from December 1916 to January 1917
Foster & Co., and Metropolitan
(25 Men 25 Women)

niedziela, 30 maja 2010

Mark I

State United Kingdom
Type of vehicle tank
Track traction
Crew 7
Prototypes 1916
Production 1916 -?
Made 150
Technical Data
A gasoline engine, Daimler 6-cylinder 105 hp
Broadcast Engineering
Armor thickness: 6 - 10 mm
Length of 7.93 m
Width 4.13 m
Height 2.45 m
Weight 26 000 kg (self)
The speed of 6 km / h (on road)
Range of 30 km (on road)
Operational Data
Men's version
2 inch 57 mm cannon
3 Hotchkiss machine guns
female version
5 machine guns
Great Britain

After field trials in January 1916, Mark was assigned to the production. The English name of the tank - Tank meant the tank was used to confuse an interview axis. In addition venture camouflaged, officially claiming that manufacturers produce tanks to order Russia.

In total, 150 tanks were produced in the Mark I version of the "female" (with five heavy machine guns)
and "male" (equipped with two 57mm cannon and three machine guns).

15 September 1916 year, 49 tanks, the Mark I was assisted by British infantry attack at the Battle of the Somme.
On the front line reached only 32 tanks,
5 of which stuck in the marshy ground,
and 9 has failed.
The remaining 18 vehicles did not play a decisive role in the course of the fighting.
Attacked a large dispersion (in groups of two or three cars) in a hostile area, although these were a surprise to the Germans. Their use has resulted in significant reduction of losses.
September 17 at HQ British commander, General Haig, included:
Colonel Ernest Swinton, and Lieutenant Albert Stern, the two involved in the development of armored vehicles.
General Haig, however, was skeptical about the new invention, and did not cause a wider and more purposeful use of tanks. This proved a mistake, because their appearance on the front lines of the Germans by surprise as much as General Haig their effectiveness.
When it became clear that tanks do in front of the hole width and depth of several tens of kilometers, the British forces could not exploit the success, because the provision was left far behind and the tanks were withdrawn for lack of ammunition at the rear.

Winter 1941/42

In winter 1941/1942 T-34 again dominated the German tanks. It is thanks to navigate without a problem after slippery terrain, snow and falling down. Scops tanks not fared as T-34. Panzer IV used not adapted to the suspension spring weather feathered
Track and narrow,
having a tendency to sink in slippery areas.

Krauts, equipped with antitank guns PaK 36 37 mm, had no effective measures on T-34.
During the Battle of France PaK 36 was named to the door flap, due to ineffective penetration of all the tanks outside the light, while tapping the word of the crew reported heavier vehicles on the location of the crew serving it has. German crews equipped with this weapon, which fought on the eastern front, could not, therefore, to destroy Soviet tanks. Is it enforced on them to use heavy guns drawn - with greater striking power, such as better PaK 38, the newer and much heavier PaK 40 and 88 mm working.
Only a low level of training of tank crews, commanders of Soviet inefficiency and cost-effective distribution refrain tank T-34 before attaining greater success. Oh those Kacapki (Russians), as well as the entire world would have ridden. But oh well he says the Russian proverb, as if Grandma had to egg it was a grandfather.

sobota, 29 maja 2010

Summer 1941

One of my memories on the eastern front was the appearance of T-34 in the summer of 1941. He was the most numerous tank in the Soviet actions against Szwabom. Svabs afraid of them like hell. Today one could say the scientific community that they have suffered psychological shock and not one. It was a surprise to them because they thought that Russians are worse prepared. He wrote of this Alfred Jodl, was very surprised the presence of T-34 in Riga. T-34 can, and compete effectively with all the German tanks of the 41st
However, he was very defective engines were detained by the sucked dust and sand (very bad, Pomona original filter was completely sucked), and Take pity on God's gearbox and clutch. At least half of all losses in the tanks of the first year was caused by accident, but much less damage was the result of the German fire, but the statistics counted as old unfixed tanks. They had no ogaru logistics for equipment repairs. Always crew early T-34 tanks arrived in the battle with the gearbox up to the engine cover. Only later reversed the technological faults.

środa, 26 maja 2010

Hello. Is this T-34?

The diagnosis of different versions of T-34 can be complicated.
Casting towers,
superficial details
and armament differed depending on the factory in which they are produced. New features were added during the production or matched to the older tanks.
Damaged and excluded from combat tanks assembled from scratch.
Sometimes added to them
newer models of equipment,
and even entirely new towers.
Some also have extra copies of the shield-piercing, zezłomowanej made of steel of different thickness, welded to the hull and turret. So modified tanks were called s-display (Russian с экранами, 'the screen') [9].

The first tanks were produced in 1940 have been fitted with radio-RT 10-26e, also installed on the mobile sectors of the SU-100.
RT 10-26e was soon replaced by a 9-RS model.
Since 1953, T-34/85 models were equipped with radio sets R-113 grenade.

Other armored combat vehicles built on the basis of T-34

* Tanks with flame throwers - OT-34 and OT-34/85,
equipped with an internal flamethrower,
mounted in place of the hull machine gun.
* PT-1 T-34/76 - Protiwominnyj Tral (Tral przeciwminowy) -
naciskowym tank with Tral,
mostly built on the chassis of the T-34 and T-34/85 Model 1943.
* Armored cars - the T-34 chassis was used as the basis for a series of self-propelled guns:
the SU-122,
the SU-85,
the SU-100.

After World War II, some T-34 tanks were fitted with
and 122 mm howitzers were used as a self-propelled artillery of the army of Syria and Egypt.

Production support of many vehicles - and even civilian tractors and cranes - construction on the chassis of the T-34 began during the war, and ended up in the 90s Twentieth century. The vast majority of them are treatment of old or damaged tanks and self-propelled guns.

* Tanks bridge - the old tanks were rebuilt in the fields or repair facilities. Wrecks along with those parts of the bridges przyczepionymi sunk in water in two rows of special operations for crossing rivers, but were later pulled from the water and repaired for reuse.
* Technical security cars - during World War II some of the old tanks were put on carts technical security (CTM s) by covering the ring of the tower or the addition of the superstructure. After the war, these processing operations have been formalized in a successful production of more sophisticated models.

As the saying goes. As it is said.

Swabia interview attributed models T-34/76 and T-34/85 minor changes in nomenclature np.T-34/76A. This terminology was mostly used in the West, mainly in popular literature.

The Red Army never established principles of denomination serial production models. However, since the 80s Twentieth century in the work of many scholars (especially American expert on combat vehicles, Steven Zaloga) Russian names used:
T-34 and
models with honors from the year of production, such as T-34 Model 1940.
Naming system is similar to the U.S., except in the form adopted in the Polish name for the T-34/85 tanks T-34, Chapter 85 mm.

Some Russian historians use different names:
The first T-34 is described as T-34 Model 1940 instead of 1939,
All T-34 with the original tower and the department is called F-34 T-34 Model 1941 in place of Models 1941 and 1942,
and T-34 with a hexagonal tower - Model 1942 Model 1943 instead. Probably due to the propaganda.

Acquired T-34 tank in the German army was called Pz.Kpfw T-34 (r), (r) is the phrase Russland (Russia).

Finns have called T-34 tank Sotka from goldeneye,
sea ducks,
because of its lateral silhouette reminiscent of flying aquatic birds (with the link to memories of Finnish ace armored Lauri Heino).
T-34/85 was named pitkäputkinen Sotka, "długolufową Sotką.

T-34 (in German nomenclature: T-34/76) - the original version of Chapter 76.2 mm.

* 1940 Model (T-34/76) - early start of production from a makeshift department czołgowym 76.2 mm L-11 in a two-tower.
* Model 1941 (T-34/76B) - responsible production of heavier armor, and an effective division F-34 76.2 mm.
* Model 1942 (T-34/76C) - many minor improvements in production.
* Model 1943 (T-34/76D, E and F) - hexagonal tower, the Germans called "Mickey Mouse" because of its distinctive appearance of the two not comparable with open, round flaps mounted on its roof. The new cupola for the commander.

T-34/57 -
less than 324 T-34 tanks in 1941
and 1943-44 were armed with quick-acting
57 mm ZIS-4
or the ZIS-4M,
to serve as tank destroyers. Some of them took part in the Battle of Moscow.

T-34/85 - as the most important improvements include a three-tower with a long chapter of 85 mm.

* Model 1943 - with an improved model of the production department of the D-5T 85mm lasted from February to March 1944 Very very briefly.
* Model 1944 - an appropriate start with the simpler production performed by the department
ZIS-S-53 88 mm
radio moved from the hull to better rozplanowanej tower
having a new viewfinder for the gunner.

For T-34/85 and after the war, introduced many technical improvements, especially in the Soviet modernization programs in 1960 and 1969.
T-34/85 All models have a similar appearance.

Pre-war plans for improvement of tank T-34 resumed in 1944, and new models of harmonized in the T-44.
The new tank T-44 had
-Tower designed like that of T-34/85
-A completely new hull torsional rod and transversely mounted engine.
Was lower than the T-34/85 and was easier to manufacture.
From 150 to 200 of these tanks were built before the end of the war.
After some modifications in the
-Drive with
-New tower
S department
became a tank T-55, whose production was launched in 1947.

Widely exported copies T-34/85 Czechoslovak production can be identified by półstożkowej, armored owiewce (set looks like a rear-facing scoop) on the left rear side panel angled in the engine compartment sponsonu.

In brief:
This large first year of starting production or model
Other works are in mm caliber,
T-34/85 (in Polish naming) 34 and 85, the model has 85mm caliber.

Production Data

Production cost of one tank T-34/85 was initially 30% higher than the Model 1943, at the level of 164,000 rubles;
However, in 1945 dropped to 142,000. During the war, the cost of a tank has fallen by half compared to 1941 when it was 270,000 rubles. In the meantime, production levels remained more or less the same level, and the ability to penetrate armor and has the thickness of the front of the turret armor doubled.

By the end of 1945, produced about 54,000 tanks T-34:
34,780 original T-34 1940-1944
and another 22 599 T-34/85 tanks in 1944-1945.
The factory was the largest producer of No 183 (UTZ) with
28 952 T-34 tanks
and T-34/85, built between 1941 and 1945.
The second largest production plant was 112 (Krasnoye Sormowo) in the city of Gorky
12 604 tanks of both types.
In 1946, after the war, was built
2701 T-34 tanks,
and later ceased production on a large scale.
It was restarted on the license
Poland (1951-1955)
and in Czechoslovakia (1951-1958), where he has been assembled to 1956, respectively 1380 and 3185 tanks.
Later, outside the Soviet Union switched to the production of tanks T-54/55 and T-72. In the late 60s The twentieth century, Soviet T-34/85 underwent modernization program (T-34M) for exports and reserves. It is equipped with a series of driving elements T-54/55 tanks. In this way, adapted it to contemporary standards of Soviet tanks.


In 1942 it began production of a new hexagonal tower, which was taken from an alleged construction project tank T-34M.
Thanks to T-34 had equipped with peepholes multilateral dome to the commander. Fixed a convenience.
The limited supply has forced the application of complex rubber road wheels, and the five-speed gearbox and engine adds a new clutch.

In 1942 the battlefield was provided with effective German tanks in the battle, long 75 mm guns.
After an introduction to the production of T-34, Morozov design bureau began work on a prototype of the modern T-43 tank. Emphasis on improving armor protection for the T-34. Also added innovative equipment such as:
-The torsion bar suspension
Transversely-mounted engine.
Due to the threat of war was abandoned with the introduction of a new type of tank.
The T-43, prepared in direct confrontation with KW-1913 project, created by the patent office Chelyabinsk, was intended to make a universal tank, able to replace both the T-34 and the heavy tank KV-1 [13].

In 1943 the Germans against the Soviet forces erected a new tank:
Experience the Battle of Kursk and reports from the front line commanders showed that 76-mm working T-34 did not allow for a smooth fight the enemy with the new machines.
It was considered 85-millimeter anti-very effective in the fight against German tanks. "The idea to combine them with tanks.

As a consequence of cancellation of work on the T-43, and the Soviet command decided to switch process lines of factories for the production of a new model T-34 with an increased (from 1.425 m to 1.6 m) diameter tower.
The draft of that, borrowed from the T-43, was quickly matched by W. Kericzewa Factory "Krasnoye Sormowo" to the needs of T-34.
As a result, the new T-34/85 tank had a much better and has a three-tower equipped with a radio.
Now the commander dealt with only commanding a tank, leaving the service works and ładowniczemu działonowemu.
Another important piece of equipment was a periscope Vickers Mk IV, copied from the pre-war Polish and British projects, which when mounted on the roof of the tower allowed the commander to freely observe the area around the tank.

Overall production declined slightly when the new model began production of the tank. Although the T-34/85 was still not ready for the start of Pantera, after increasing his strength destruction by assembling a new act was much more effective than previously. The decision to strengthen the already existing model instead of fitting the new allowed the Soviets to manufacture tanks in such numbers that the differences in armor could be considered irrelevant. In May 1944 the Wehrmacht had only 304 Panthers operating on the Eastern Front, while the Soviets, accelerating the production of T-34/85, manufactured up to 1200 units per month.

A knife in the back. Production part II

Violent attacks and quickly forced the staff of the German conquest of endangered plants in the tanks to escape the Ural mountains.
-KhPZ was moved in around the current facility in Nizhny Tagil Uralwagonzawod, formerly the Department of Ural Wagon them. Felix Dzerzhinsky, who transformed them Uralsk Tank Factory. Joseph Stalin No. 183rd
Kirovsk-factory were evacuated even before the Leningrad was surrounded, and transferred with the Factory Kharkiv Tractor Factory as fuel for them. Joseph Stalin in Chelyabinsk, called shortly Tankograd ("Tank City").
Factory assembly-line Tank them. Kliment Voroshilov No. 174, Leningrad, moved to the Ural factory and the new Omsk Factory No. 174th
-Department of Heavy Industry to them. Sergo Ordzhonikidze (UZTM) in Swerdłowsku small trading-post conquered many.
Before a major center of Soviet military production has become a factory in the Urals, was an industrial complex:
Stalingrad Tractor Plant produces 40% of all T-34 tanks.
But when the plant was surrounded during the heavy fighting of Stalingrad, the situation started to deteriorate. Due to lack of raw materials, new production methods, and produced T-34 were released on the battlefield often without paint. Stalingrad continued production until September 1942.

Interruption in production has become a pretext to technological change,
simplify handling
and reducing production costs.
In order to automate production, new solutions,
on the welding
and curing of plates, taking into account the ideas of Professor Yevgeny Paton. The project operates 76.2 mm F-34 Model 1941 simplified. Originally it consisted of 861 parts, as amended with the 614th
Within two years the cost of production of the tank has been reduced from 269 500 to 135 000 rubles.
Production was halted in the second half of 1942, despite attempts to replace the most experienced factory workers, dispatched to the battlefield, the labor force made up of 50% women, from 15% children and 15% invalids and men of working age. T-34, which were to be "beautifully made machine with an excellent finish, comparable to or better than those of Western Europe or America, are better finished than in 1941 but has not been elaborated on the mechanics of the vehicle.

A knife in the back. Production

T-34 has become the cause of changes in Soviet industry.
He was the strongest armored medium tank produced to date in the USSR.
Its components produced in different factories:
Fuel-Kharkiv factory supplied model No. 75 with an engine in-2,
Kirovsk-Leningrad Factory (former industrial plant Putilow) has created the original L-11,
-Factory Dynamo Moscow produced electrical components.
The tanks were originally constructed in:
-KhPZ No 183,
-At the beginning of 1941 in Stalingrad Tractor Factory (STZ)
-The mass production started in July in the Factory "Krasnoye Sormowo" No 112 in Gorky.
Sometimes there were problems with the defective armor plates.
Due to the shortage of new diesel engines for the W-2 T-34, originally produced in a factory in Gorky, were equipped with tanks used in the BT-burning gasoline engines MT-17 and technically flawed:
gearbox and clutch.
Only the tank company commanders can be equipped with radios, receivers were expensive. L-11 has not met the expectations of the field.
Project Office Vasily Grabina Factory No. 92 in Gorky has designed the best F-34 76.2 mm.
Senior officials refused to give consent on their production, however, the factory in Gorky and KhPZ begun work on a new project working. The official approval was received later from the National Defense Committee after the military command sent praise for the effectiveness of the tank in the field.

There have been political pressure of conservative members of the military. They wanted to restore the serial production
older T-26
and tanks BT
also sought to stop the production of T-34.
The reason for this was carried out works on the project improved the T-34M.
Germany's surprise attack on the Soviet Union June 22, 1941 (Operation Barbarossa) forced the USSR to stop further design work on new models of tanks and switch to mass production of tanks.


Before 1939 the most numerous Soviet tanks were:
-Light tank T-26
-Series tanks pościgowych BT.
T-26 was slow infantry tank, designed to keep pace with the infantry soldiers. Czerwonoarmiści often have to crawl to T-26 behind them keep up.
BT tanks were known. tanks fast, designed to fight other armored vehicles.
Both were characterized by thin armor. Armor resists fire light infantry, but he was prone to shells muskets and 37-millimeter anti-guns.
At that time petrol engine F-17 (mounted inside the tank) can be easily evolved fires. Tanks are structures based on the projects in other countries from the 30s:
-T-26 was based on the British Vickers E
BT-tanks formed the basis of the draft American engineer Walter Christie.

I remember like it was yesterday. In 1937, my colleague Mikhail Koszkin engineer has been assigned by the Red Army to a new management team in order to construct a successor to BT in the Kharkov Tank Factory guitar lesson (ChPZ) in Kharkov.
I was involved in the design of this excellent machine. Prototype tank, we called A-20 was equipped with:
-20-millimeter armor
-Has 45 mm
-New model dwunastocylindrowego W-2 engine, powered by diesel, which was not as flammable as gasoline,
8x6-wheel-drive replacement (as opposed to 8x2 tanks BT), which allowed for a circular drive without the drive caterpillar. This feature is largely influenced by the depreciation costs of perishable drive tanks in the early 30s Twentieth century
Prototype tanks on flat terrain to develop a speed of 85 km / h, but this did not translate into effective combat. We thought it over and unnecessary waste of raising the vehicle's weight.
A-20 used the positive experience of design work (design the BT-IS and BT-SW-2) on the sloping armor, for example, arranged on the sloping armor plates were more likely to break the flight armor missiles than the vertical.

Koszkin Joseph's uncle has been approved to develop a second prototype,
better armored
and armed,
so. "Tank Universal", which was to replace the T-26 and BT tanks. The second prototype Koszkina we called A-32,
from 32-millimeter armor front.
Has had a 76.2 mm
and the same engine model (W-2).
Tanks have been tested on specific ranges in Kubinka in 1939. It has been proven that the heavier A-32 is as mobile as the A-20.
Heavier version of the A-32
54-millimeter front armor
and wider tracks has been accepted for production under the name T-34.
Determination of the tank occurred after 1934, when Koszkin began to formulate a proposal for new tank (mark the decree ordering an increase of armor).

Two T-34 prototypes were completed in January 1940. Have completed an exhaustive, 2,000-kilometer route from Kharkov to Moscow (for the demonstration of the Kremlin leaders) and then the Mannerheim Line (Finland). Returned to Kharkov by the Minsk and Kiev in April and May 1940. Faults detected after the driving test suspension have been corrected.
Opposition headquarters and concerns about high production costs were ultimately ignored by the political authorities.
Against the background of concerns about low skills Soviet tanks in Finland, Germany and the effectiveness of the Blitzkrieg in France - the first production series tank was completed in September 1940. Thus brought to a definitive halt production in KhPZ tanks:
and medium tank T-28
and his successor in T-29.
Koszkin died of pneumonia due to exhaustion ride from Kharkov to Moscow. He was replaced by founder of the suspension to a T-34 - Alexander Morozov. Unfortunately I did not choose because I am a Pole.

T-34 had a Christie suspension, previously used in BT. He was relieved of a heavy, inefficient removable drive. Had
solid sloping armor,
relatively powerful engine
and wide tracks.
The initial version has been equipped with a 76.2 mm. She was often called T-34/76 (originally the German mark). In 1944 we started producing the second major release, T-34/85, with more persistent tower has 85 mm.

T-34 power and the glory

Member of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Manufacturer Kharkiv Design Office to them. Alexander Morozov
Vehicle type tank average
Track traction
The crew of 4 people
Prototypes 1937-1940
Production 1940-1958
Withdrawal 1996
Made about 84 070
Technical Data
Engine 12-cylinder, diesel, four-stroke, V-2 model of the power of 500 hp (370 kW)
Broadcast Engineering
Notion. rebounds. 460-480 liters of fuel essential, additional 134 l
Armour plates welded to the rolled to a thickness of 52 mm
Length 6.68 m
Width 3 m
Height 2.45 m
Clearance 0.40 m
Weight 26.5 tons
Power of one. 17.5 hp / tonne
Speed 53 km / h
Range road 300
Overcoming Obstacles
Brody (D) 1.30 m
Ditches (W) 2.50 m
Walls (H), 0.73 m
30 ° ramp angle
Operational Data
X has a L-11 or F-34 inch 76.2 mm
2 x DT caliber machine gun, 7.62 mm
Soviet Union and 39 others.

I remember when I was in Kharkov Factory guitar lesson Comintern. The first time I saw him. The Soviets crossed themselves, constructing and producing the world's best tank average. Produced in the years 1941-1958. When he appeared on the front of everyone, especially Krauts felt T-34 tank for the best of the world. Significantly influenced the war. Was the main tank of the Soviet armored forces in 1941-1945, and export commodity in subsequent years. Most manufactured during the war, and a second tank in terms of production of all time, after his successor, T-54/55 series.
I remember even in 1996, T-34 działczył in 27 countries.

T-34 tank series was the development of pościgowych BT. Succeeded in operating a vehicle: BT-5,
infantry tank T-26.
Solidly constructed with high strength and fire.
Initially, he was not very effective, because:
Nieergonomicznego project-deployment of crew,
Lack of radio-
Low-utility vehicle in tactical planning.
Location of the tower required a double act at the same time the commander gunner function (characteristic of many Soviet tanks.) Structurally, however, was less efficient than setting crews of German tanks, whose towers were located three-crew (commander, gunner and loader).

Design and construction of tanks were constantly upgraded. Increased efficiency and reduced its production costs. The Soviets systematically introducing its new versions.
In early 1944 I saw on the battlefields T-34/85,
-From the powerful chapter 85 mm
-Tower designed for the three tank. In 1945, universal and cost-effective in the production of T-34 replaced the light and heavy tanks, becoming a key - a Soviet combat vehicle. His continuous improvement has led to its replacement by a separate series of T-54/55 tanks, built until 1981 and used until today.


Tanks out of war is divided into three generations:

First generation
tanks is coming directly after World War II. The group includes T-54. His counterpart is the American M-47.

Tanks and generation:

* A41 Centurion
* FV214 Conqueror
* M103
* M47/48
* T-54
* T-55
* T-10

Second generation
the tanks to have improved targeting devices, introduced the first time the laser sights, and APFSDS projectiles.
To this generation belong tanks
T-55, as AM (modernized and equipped with fire control MERIDA, and additional armor hull and turret)
T-62 - the first ever second generation tank, the first stabilized smoothbore gun caliber 115 mm and 240 mm front armor. His potential opponent of U.S.
M-60 gun was 105 mm rifled gun, the British L-7, produced under license in the U.S. under the name M-68. It was then the standard gun in all armies of NATO. Also, the British Chieftain tank gun with a caliber of 120 mm were classic examples of second-generation tanks. During this period it became the standard side-mount screens przeciwkumulacyjnych to counter saturation kumulacyjnymi przeciwpancernymi measures (eg anti-tank grenade launchers) which are supplied infantry.

Tanks II generation:

* AMX-30
* Chieftain
* Leopard 1
* M-60
* Pz61
* Strv 103
* T-62

Third Generation
are the main armament of the army of Western countries. This class includes such vehicles as the U.S.
M1 Abrams with a smoothbore, RHM Rheinmetal German gun with a caliber of 120 mm, firing projectiles at a speed of 1650 m / s. Armor is made up of composite components and high-sintered ceramic providing him, after modernization, complete protection against projectiles caliber 125 mm, with Soviet tanks, both kumulacyjnymi and cored. Fire control system offers a powerful termowizorem, gun is fully stabilized, the total mass of the tank is 56 tons. The tank is equipped with a rather unusual drive system, rather than classical turbo diesel engine uses a gas turbine.

British Challenger 1 is produced since 1983. Armed with a 120 mm caliber gun. Develops speed of 56 km / h at 62 tonnes unladen weight! In this respect, leaves far behind the U.S. or German units. It has excellent armor type Chobham, which is produced under license in the U.S. and used in "Abramsach. It has an automated system to stabilize the barrel, uses gyroscopes to keep guns wycelowanej accurately even when the tank moves along a very uneven terrain. Laser rangefinder is coupled with computerized fire control system. Constructed since 1996 are also new versions, namely the second Challenger

German Leopard 2 A4 versions of the gun caliber is 120 mm. Tank Leopard 2 A4 version included in the equipment of the Polish armed forces.

French "Leclerc" is one of the latest design. It has a 120 mm caliber gun, but with the extension of the barrel to increase muzzle velocity 1800 m / s. The cannon is not loaded by hand, mounted a special slot loader so that rate of fire increased to up to 15 rounds per minute firing short bursts. This is important in the modern battlefield, where the tank needs to quickly detect and destroy targets.

Armour was developed jointly with German companies involved in the Leopard II tank. Leopard II received it during the upgrade, the bottom part of his armor is so little of the older generation and the surface state of the art. The "Leclercu" all the armor is the latest generation, and the tank has not yet upgrading tanks such as the other Generation III and has yet to adopt the additional armor weight to 3 tons.

The Russian army also has tanks III generation, they are the T-80 and T-90. They have a performance comparable with western vehicles.

Tanks third generation:

* AMX-56 Leclerc
* C-1 Ariete
* Challenger 1
* Challenger 2
* Leopard 2
* M1 Abrams
* Merkawa Mk3
* T-80
* T-90
* Type 90
* Type 98

Intermediate models (between II and III generation)

Between the second and third generation started after a few tanks such as T-intermediate 64, which were already better than the second-generation cars, but weaker than those in the third generation. The best example is used by the Polish army T-72. It is equipped with the most powerful at that time the gun D-81, also known as Rapira, denoted by the manufacturer as 2A46, Smooth with a caliber of 125 mm. A cannon is loaded automatic rifle, missiles are not only separable circuits - a separate propellant charge head separately. Ammunition is fed from the rotary magazine located at the bottom of the tower. APFSDS Cannon throw projectiles at a speed of 1,815 m / s - compared with modern American gun out of reach muzzle velocity around 1650 m / s. Cannon, however, is only one gyroscope-stabilized, while in the western third generation tanks have already been in four or even five. In addition, lower quality ammunition makes this western cars can penetrate thicker armor. Diesel engine power of 730 horsepower gives him a pretty good maneuverability, but the third generation of modern tanks to the engines are more powerful and faster zwrotniejsze.

intermediate generation tanks III / III:

* PT-91 Hard
* AMX-32
* AMX-40
* Chieftain 900
* Merkawa
* OF-1940
* T-64
* T-72
* Type 74
* Type 85


Breakdown of tanks due to their weight:

* Tanks lightweight - weighing 8-20t (eg, Panzer I, 7TP)
* Medium tanks - weighing 30-50t (eg T-34, M4 Sherman)
* Tanks, heavy - weighing 50t (eg IS-2, Tiger)

Breakdown of tanks because of the caliber of the main arms:

* Tanks light weapons - caliber to 76 mm (eg Panzer III)
* Medium tank weapons - 90 caliber - 105 mm (eg T-34/85)
* Heavy weapons, tanks - caliber 120mm and more (eg, IS-2)

These classifications are, in practice, contractual and different in different armies, and the differences between the latest tanks, medium and heavy tanks, non-produced already faded. Because of the tactical use tanks are divided into:

* Linear tanks (combat vehicles, basic) (eg T-72, Leopard 2, M1 Abrams)
* Tanks specially designed, thanks to special equipment to perform specific tasks (with special weapons, tanks, equipment), in some armies also stands out tanks Airborne

Sometimes the word "tank" is part of the name, which identifies the vehicle is not the de facto tank. Examples are anti-tanks which are a form of self-propelled anti-aircraft guns.

After the War

The postwar era brought with it new construction stagnated, at best completes like the old Soviet T-54, a development version T-55 was produced until 1981.
New stimulus appeared in the sixties. During this period disappeared definitively split into light tanks, medium and heavy, and as it has developed the concept of MBT - Main Battle Tank - basic tank. Then emerged and joined the mass use of new inventions fundamentally alter the appearance of the battlefield. The first attack helicopters and the PKK, or anti-aircraft missiles. At the beginning of direct wired with time was used as a directing laser. Then the Soviet Army has introduced the T-62 tanks with guns gładkolufowymi, instead of threaded. Stabilization of guns, at first only vertically, horizontally and then became the norm. In the 70s a sharp jump in technology, new types of armor niestalowych, thermal imaging, laser rangefinders determining the distance to the nearest of several centimeters, and ... new types of anti-tank.

World War II

The hostilities resulted in direct confrontation with each tank. All the conclusions drawn from it and created new structures.
Soviet side was IS-2 (Iosif Stalin on), which succeeded tank TA. He had a 122 mm gun and the front armor thickness of 120 mm. When weighing 46 tonnes was a very formidable opponent for new types of German tanks: the average Panzer V "Panther" in 1943 and heavy Panzer VI "Tiger", which appeared at the end of 1942.

"Tiger" weighed 56 tons,
was armed with an excellent 88-mm caliber gun (anti reengineered), two machine guns,
developed 37 km / h
was 102 mm front armor.
At the end of the war the Germans introduced a variety called "Royal Tiger".
The tank was
-Weight of 70 tons,
-Elongated 88 mm caliber gun with a higher muzzle velocity of projectiles, and thus more effective
Of up-armor 185 mm thick.
The values given armor are not objective, however - at the time of entry into the service of royal Tigers German steel from the lack of raw materials was already much lower quality than the one used in Soviet tanks.
Tigers, however, were still powered by gasoline engines, while the Soviet Union since the beginning of the war were only the best diesel engines.
Especially the diesel engine had the advantage that it used in a fuel (as opposed to gasoline) rarely lit from the tank hit by the enemy. Furthermore, the diesel engine torque is achieved more quickly which is important in the field.

U.S. Army used several types of tanks. The most famous is the M4 Sherman, which was developed in 1940.
Initially, the mass was 31 tonnes and short-barreled 75 mm gun;
at the end of the war appeared with guns versions:
longbarrel caliber 76 mm,
British 17-pdr (76.2 mm)
even mm howitzer 105 mm.
The advantage of this tank was primarily ease of mass production and thus high numerical superiority over the German tanks (in total, to end production in 1945, over 40,000 tanks, M4).
The major disadvantages were the
-Weak against the German armor-piercing weapons (which was adapted to control a much better armored Soviet tanks);
-Low firepower, especially in the case of cars with the basic 75 mm gun.

The period between the war the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union has introduced a number of projects which wprawiły tanks in the Wehrmacht troops surprised their performance and combat efficiency. The first one was built in a large tank BT series (built on a tank chassis design engineer Christi U.S.) - there were several variations. The distinguishing feature of this car was his great speed (BT - bystrochodnyj tank - a fast tank). On good ground even reached 86 km / h (without caterpillars, which was able to remove the characteristic feature of this car) and it was the undisputed record until the end of the 70s
BT series tanks were equipped with longbarrel caliber cannon 45 mm, which is absolutely enough to fight then each tank.
The great disadvantage of cars BT, however, was thin armor (in the best of them, BT-7, only 22 mm).
Made a light amphibious tank armed with machine guns, providing support to the infantry when crossing fords, no other army in the world did not have a similar structure.

The next structure was a heavy tank designed for activities that overcome TA-1 (short Kliment Voroshilov, a member of the Politburo).
The heavy tank was equipped with a 76.2 mm caliber cannon and machine guns 3-4, His staff consisted of five people.
Subsequent versions of the tank TA is TA-2 and TA-85.
Further development of this structure led to a tank JS (Joseph Stalin). There were several versions of the IS tank. These were the versions of the IS-1 IS-4. After the war, based on the IS-3 tank was constructed heavy tank T-10, which ended his service in the Russian army in 1993

Tank T-34 is certainly the most famous tank of World War II. The basic parameters determining the constructed in 1940 and ahead of their time a few years the average tank is:
-25 Tons,
76.2-mm caliber gun,
-55 Km / h
-Range up to 300 km thanks to the excellent diesel engine.
In 1943 he perfected it even more, are listed on the gun caliber 85 mm, which gave him even greater strength and the ability to fight even with heavy tanks such as "Tiger".

Interwar Third Reich

The interwar period is the time of trial and improvement of existing ideas. In most developed countries, construction of tanks "fast" and "infantry" - intended to destroy enemy tanks and fast attacks on the rear of the enemy (Cruiser tank) or to support the infantry (infantry tank).
In the Third Reich, but light tanks (Panzer I, Panzer II)
designed two medium tanks - Panzer III (initially 37 mm gun at a later time with a larger caliber guns), designed to combat the enemy vehicle.
Panzer IV (initially with short-barreled 75 mm) designed to support infantry.

In 1931, Krupp developed in factories on secret orders Army Ordnance Office (Heereswaffenamt) Two models of Light Panzer I and Panzer II (Panzer - Panzer Kampfwagen, meaning "armored car combat"). Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany Reichswehrze holding tank armor so marked was LaS (Landwirtschaftlicher Schlepper - tractor).

This designation was changed to Pz.Kpfw And only in 1935 when Hitler officially declared the Treaty of Versailles. The first was armed with two machine guns 7.92 mm embedded in the tower, and the other had a rifle and 20 mm caliber cannon.

Basic German tank during World War II Panzer IV, was developed in 1936.
He had a weight of 18 tonnes for the first version
to 32 tonnes for the version built at the end of hostilities.
Armament consisted of a working 75 mm caliber gun and two 7.92 mm machine gun;
crew consisted of five persons.

The origins of the Da Vinci Renault

In Leonardo's notebooks are a number of machines of war, including tank which had cast stones, set in motion by two men driving the crankshaft. Despite the fact that the drawing looked like a completely finished, mechanics apparently was not really developed. The model was built by the project in 1484 with great effort could be rotated in place, but did not move straight. In the BBC documentary, the team that built the military machine. It turned out that the proper action should be to change one of the mechanisms. Discovery also took on projects in Leonardo. It is believed that da Vinci left the error on purpose to prevent the use of this project by unauthorized people.

The prototype tank was developed in England in 1915, the first such vehicle was designed in 1911, Austrian Gunther Burstyn and independently of an Australian engineer Lancelot de Mole their ideas were ignored by the military establishment.

During World War I the British Colonel Ernest Swinton came to the conclusion that an effective cover of attacking infantry could be armored tractor on tracks. With Churchill was "Little Willy".
-Velocity reached 3.2 km / h;
-Weight is 18.3 tons;
-Length of over 4 m (with the rear wheels supporting the length was 8 m).
The most important feature was its ability passes by the trenches and the trenches with a width of 1.35 m.
Because of the similarity of "Willy" to the petrol tank and to confuse German intelligence, Colonel Swinton gave the machine code name "tank (reservoir). This name, even today in many languages means a tank.

Since the word comes from a tank tankette (English tankette). Polish name "tank" comes from the way the first movement of machinery (which seemed to slowly crawl along the ground in their tracks).

The first tanks, the Mark I came to share in the Battle of the Somme, the tanks were used as infantry support. The first massed tank attack took place during the Battle of Cambrai.

Resembled the first tanks of the British armored boxes, belted two sides metal tracks. New type chassis allowed to overcome the difficult barriers, including trenches and crushing barbed wire fence. The first tanks were very primitive machine. To make a sharp turn, called for coordinated work of four people, which was no mean achievement.
The vehicle had no ventilation, causing the exhaust gases and safety fuses are often caused fainting and poisoning of the crew.
The tank was located 210 l tank of fuel, which allowed the distance of 30 km. After the defeat of trails 100 km vehicle require replacement of many parts.
The tanks did not have radio stations and to communicate over great distances used carrier pigeons.
Their weapons were located in the side towers - sponsonach. Half the cars had the five machine guns, and the remaining two acts and three 57 mm machine guns. For the first action on the Somme in 1916 sent 49 tanks, which reached the 40th 9 of the crash is not even reached the German position. Initially, the Germans seized panic, but quickly learned to combat them, such as firing guns straight.

Tank of 1916, Mark 1 can move at 6.4 km / h, and the composition of its equipment fall within two working. The vehicle shook terribly, so the crew wore padded clothing.

The only structure of the German World War I was unsuccessful A7V tank. As the most successful World War I tank is considered a French design of the FT-17, the first tank of classic and used out of the structure (rotating tower on the fuselage). When driving a 1991 Clio I feel like tankman the First World War.


Welcome. I would like to present you the most beautiful and most powerful war machine, which is a tank. Some definitions say that it is:

tracked the car of war, to fight the forces of the enemy at short, medium distances by firing straight ahead. Heavy armor and tanks provide high mobility to survive on the battlefield, and the crawler drive allows you to move at high speed in ciężkicm ground. The tank is an essential means of conducting the fight by land, especially the attack.

According OWN:
tank tracked vehicle, armored, armed with a gun turret on a moving machine guns and 1-3, the weight to about 60 tons, due to the use tanks are divided into basic and special: the command (by means of complex communications), reconnaissance, sapper , landing, etc., basic tanks produced after World War II are divided into generations (group of tanks, which are characterized by solutions with similar characteristics) for the first time tanks were used in the September 1916 Battle of the Somme.

I'll explain to you the simplest. Tank Tank is possibly tracked vehicle, which blow up everything in its path. This is the perfect and ultimate weapon on land.